RAQs: Recently Asked Questions

Topic: Copying VHS/Changing format/due diligence - 6/29/2017
We have several VHS tapes that our anthropology professors use in the classroom. Our campus will b...
Posted: Thursday, June 29, 2017 Permalink

MEMBER QUESTION

We have several VHS tapes that our anthropology professors use in the classroom. Our campus will be phasing out VHS as the players break down. We would like to send these to a vendor to create DVDs or digital files. We feel we have done the due diligence searching for a replacement. In most academic libraries media materials are purchased for distribution to the classroom for educational use. Making a copy would be of little benefit if use is not allowed in classroom, face to face instruction.

WNYLRC ATTORNEY'S RESPONSE

WNYLRC ATTORNEY’S RESPONSE

From: Stephanie C. Adams

Date: June 27, 2017

This question starts with 17 USC 108(c), which allows for duplication of “obsolete,” formats, but limits the accessibility of digitized copies “to the premises” of the library. 

The inquiring library set out the other 108(c) factors: the obsolescence of VHS (manufacture stopped in 2016), the lack of commercially available copies, and the published nature of the work.  So as you say, what’s left to determine is:  Does the “premises” of a library in an educational institution include the whole campus?

“Premises” is not defined in the Copyright Code, nor is it commented on in the lawmaking notes (vis-à-vis this question).  I found no case law directly on point.  So we’ll go to the lawyer’s last resort: common sense.

Section 108’s bar on digitized preservation copies leaving the premises of the library is very rigid, and it is likely the boundaries of your library are, too.  If the library has a finite space that is reported in things like strategic plans, accreditation reports, and campus maps, then the “premises” would most likely be deemed to end at the door, not flow throughout the campus.  A quick search on this issue show this is the emerging consensus.  So yes, the DVD’s you make as a result of this format shift are, at first, trapped in your library[1].

This creates a ridiculous conundrum: you need to shift the format so the educational material may be accessed, now that the format is no longer supported.  But in transferring the information to a digital format, you are shackling it to the premises.  How can you provide access?


[1] The Section 110 exemption for “classroom use,” requires that the viewed copy be “lawfully made,” and your digital copy, to be “lawfully made,” must stay on site.  So I do not feel safe advising you to use that route…although it is uncharted territory.

 

You have two options:

First, it is important to remember that the shift of format does not necessarily change the license your institution purchased when it first acquired the VHS tapes.  This is a point strongly emphasized in both 108, and the lawmaker notes accompanying it.  If your institution had a license to use the copies for classroom room, directly from the owner/publisher, that license might survive the shift.  That could be determined from the purchase records or license text on the video itself.

Second, the Association of Research Libraries’ “Code of Best Practices in Fair Use for Academic and Research Libraries” was drafted, in part, to address this situation (see page 18).  In the Code, the ARL posits that when a preservation copy is made, further access can be granted under Fair Use.  This does come with limits however: “off-premises access to preservation copies circulated as substitutes for original copies should be limited to authenticated members of a library’s patron community, e.g., students, faculty, staff, affiliated scholars, and other accredited users.”  Further, the Code states that preservation and Fair Use copies should not be accessed simultaneously, and technology controls should be used both label the copy as required by 108, and to restrict further duplication.

This Fair Use solution to your problem has been adopted into the published policies of many institutions (here are a few examples[1]).   As there is no case law on point, I cannot say it is a slam-dunk defense, but I can say that if you adopt your own policy for carefully following this emerging standard practice, and then document that you follow it as you embark on this journey to ensure continued access to educational material you rightfully purchased, you will be in good company if content owners decide to sue for infringement, and recent case law about fair use will likely weigh in your favor.

There is a good deal of writing and advocacy on this issue, and hopefully in another few years, I will have a more definitive answer to give you!

 

Tags: Copyright, Fair Use, Preservation, VHS

Topic: Microfilming A Current Newspaper - 2/6/2017
Our local newspaper of record used to microfilm itself (using a third party vendor) for their own ...
Posted: Monday, February 6, 2017 Permalink

MEMBER QUESTION

Our local newspaper of record used to microfilm itself (using a third party vendor) for their own use in their private archives.  I’m not sure what terms they had with the microfilm vendor, but it was relatively inexpensive for the public library to purchase a copy from the microfilming company for daily use.  The newspaper has come under new ownership and longer microfilms itself.  My first question is whether I understand 17 U.S.C. §108 correctly. Does paragraph A give libraries the right to make 1 analog copy of pretty much anything they own? Or, in this case, to microfilm the newspapers we have on hand? And does paragraph C give us the right to make up to 3 more microfilm copies, for preservation purposes? It would be our position that newsprint is always deteriorating (we have no climate control storage space to preserve a long run; people steal issues and cut out articles) and after “a reasonable effort” there will be nowhere else from where we can buy a pristine back run “at a fair price”…. Must we enter negotiations with the publisher to secure the right?

WNYLRC ATTORNEY'S RESPONSE

A community library’s role in archiving and creating access to local news is critical, but changing technology, uncertainly of ownership, and costs can make the legal aspects of the process uncertain.  The member’s questions, set out below, are on the forefront of this issue: how do libraries position themselves to preserve and provide access to published local news?  
 
Section 108 of the Copyright Code was created to balance the rights of copyright owners with the access and preservation of their works, including newspapers.  It allows for the copying of sections, whole works—and in some cases, the creation of multiple copies of whole works—by libraries and archives.  The first question from our member sets the stage for this issue:  
 
Does Section 108, sub-section (a) give libraries the right to make 1 analog copy of pretty much anything they own?
 
The answer is to this opening question is: No…Section 108’s application is broad, but it might not apply to your whole collection.  The final paragraph (sub-section “i”) of the law contains some big exceptions: musical works, pictorial, graphic, or sculptural works, or films/AV works (excluding news).   So, while there are certainly limitations to these limitations (mostly for ADA access, as provided for in other parts fo the law), sub-section (i) means that not “all” parts of a collection may be fully copied.  
 
That being said, exclusive of the exceptions in sub-section (i), under Section 108 (a), ONE copy can be made, so long as the library is open to the public, the copy is not made for commercial gain, and the copyright to the work is attributed—along with a notice that the copy was made per section 108.  This is a critical protection for libraries, library staff, and patrons.  However, the duplication it allows is balanced with the rights of copyright holders…and a careful read shows it was also drafted by congress to support certain actions in the “market place” (i.e. commercial archiving).  This takes us to the next 2 questions.
 
 
[Can we] microfilm the newspapers we have on hand?
 
Answer: Yes.  The creation of one copy of a published newspaper falls squarely under sub-section (a).  
 
And does sub-section (c) give us the right to make up to 3 more (microfilm) copies, for preservation purposes?
 
Sub-section (c) is the section that allows for multiple copies to be made under certain circumstances.  Applying the criteria of the sub-section,  I regret to say the answer to this is “no.”  
 
Rights under sub-section (c) only apply if the original (or copy of the original) is “damaged, deteriorating, lost, or stolen…”—or if they are embodied on an obsolete format, and that after a reasonable effort, an unused replacement can’t be purchased [a format is “obsolete” “if the machine or device necessary to render perceptible a work stored in that format is no longer manufactured or is no longer reasonably available in the commercial marketplace.”].  This formula is not a good fit with a recently published work.
 
However, in raising the question, the member raised an interesting and practical argument:  It would be our position that newsprint is always deteriorating (we have no climate control storage space to preserve a long run; people steal issues and cut out articles, etc.) and "after a reasonable effort" there will be nowhere else from where we can buy a pristine back run "at a fair price" (ie. for less than the price of striking another microfilm).
 
For a question like this, it is best to go straight to the source: the Library of Congress circulars.  The Circular on section 108 can be found here:  https://www.copyright.gov/circs/circ21.pdf
 
In relevant part, it states:
 
Subsection (c) authorizes the reproduction of a published work duplicated in facsimile form solely for the purpose of replacement of a copy or phonorecord that is damaged, deteriorating, lost or stolen, if the library or archives has, after a reasonable effort, determined that an unused replacement cannot be obtained at a fair price. The scope and nature of a reasonable investigation to determine that an unused replacement cannot be obtained will vary according to the circumstances of a particular situation. It will always require recourse to commonly-known trade sources in the United States, and in the normal situation also to the publisher or other copyright owner (if such owner can be located at the address listed in the copyright registration), or an authorized reproducing service.

[Emphasis added.] 
 
As can be seen, the delicate nature of newspapers and library capacity issues non-withstanding, proceeding under sub-section (c) without certainly that there is no commercial alternative does not meet the sub-sections’ requirements.  The law is clear: the copies can be made only after the good-faith determination that no commercial alternative exists.  
 
It is cumbersome, but saving a copy of the paper, and then establishing, on a routine basis, that back copies, digital archives, and third-party microfilm versions of the newspaper are not commercially available, meet sub-section (c)’s commercial determination requirements. This is an essential element of the law and cannot be left out, or there will be no infringement defense under sub-section (c).  
 
The final question brings this all home: We really just want to start microfilming 2 copies of the paper…. Can we? Or must we enter negotiations with the publisher to secure the right?
 
Neither sub-section (a) nor (c) require permission from the copyright holder, so libraries do not need to ask the new owner before using the 108 exceptions as set forth above.   However, as the question implies, a library seeking to go beyond what is authorized by the law would need to work with the rights holder.  Hopefully, the publisher can see the value in allowing the two copies to be created, and will agree to an irrevocable license to the library, for the benefit of its patrons.
 

Tags: Copyright, Microfilm, Preservation, Newspapers, Photocopies

Year

0

2016 4

2017 24

2018 29

2019 42

2020 51

Topics

501c3 2

Academic Libraries 2

Accessibility 4

ADA 7

Association Libraries 1

Branding and Trademarks 1

Broadcasting 1

Budget 1

Circular 21 1

Contact tracing 1

CONTU 2

Copyright 69

COVID-19 35

CPLR 4509 3

Crafting 1

Criminal Activity 1

Data 2

Defamation 1

Derivative Works 3

Digital Access 9

Digital Exhibits 1

Digitization and Copyright 10

Disclaimers 3

Discrimination 1

Dissertations and Theses 1

DMCA 2

Donations 3

E-Books and Audiobooks 2

Ed Law 2-d 1

Education Law Section 225 1

Elections 2

Emergency Response 33

Employee Rights 7

Ethics 3

Executive Order 3

Fair Use 29

Fan Fiction 1

Fees and Fines 3

FERPA 5

First Amendment 1

First Sale Doctrine 3

Forgery and Fraud 1

Friends of the Library 1

Fundraising 1

Hiring Practices 1

Historic Markers 1

HRL 1

Identity Theft 1

IRS 1

Labor 3

Laws 18

LibGuides 1

Library Buildings 1

Library Programming and Events 7

Licensing 3

Local Organizations 1

Management 16

Meeting Room Policy 3

Microfilm 1

Movies 5

Municipal Libraries 4

Music 11

Newspapers 3

Omeka 1

Online Programming 11

Open Meetings Law 1

Oral Histories 1

Overdrive 1

Ownership 1

Parodies 1

Personnel Records 1

Photocopies 15

Policy 28

Preservation 2

Privacy 10

Property 3

PTO, Vacation, and Leave 1

Public Access 1

Public Domain 7

Public Health 1

Public Libraries 4

Public Officers Law 1

Public Records 2

Quarantine Leave 1

Reopening policies 3

Retention 3

Retirement 1

Ripping/burning 1

Safety 2

Salary 2

School Ballots 1

School Libraries 5

Section 108 2

Section 110 2

Section 1201 1

Security Breach 2

Sexual Harassment 2

SHIELD Act 2

Smoking or Vaping 2

Social Media 4

SORA 1

Story time 3

Streaming 12

SUNY 1

Swank Movie Licensing 3

Taxes 4

Teachers Pay Teachers 1

Telehealth 1

Textbooks 3

Trustees 3

Umbrella Licensing 2

VHS 4

Voting 1

W3W 1

WAI 1

Yearbooks 2

Zoom 1

The WNYLRC's "Ask the Lawyer" service is available to members of the Western New York Library Resources Council. It is not legal representation of individual members.